The Baltic Sea Experiment

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Baltic Earth

7th Study Conference
Öland, Sweden
10 - 14 June 2013

Conference on Climate Change in the Southern Baltic region
Szczecin, 12-15 May 2014

21st Century Challenges in Regional Climate Modelling
Lund, 16-19 June 2014




Building predictive capability regarding the Baltic Sea

organic/inorganic carbon and oxygen systems

Preliminary results and Publications

For Baltic-C Metadata click here

Publications (most recent up)

  • AMBIO Volume 43, Issue 1, February 2014
    Special Issue: BONUS+ in Support of the Ecosystem Approach to Management in the Baltic Sea / Guest Editors: Andris Andrusaitis, Maija Sirola and Kaisa Kononen

  • Biogeochemical Control of the Coupled CO2–O2 System of the Baltic Sea: A Review of the Results of Baltic-C
    by Anders Omstedt, Christoph Humborg, Janusz Pempkowiak, Matti Perttilä, Anna Rutgersson, Bernd Schneider, Benjamin Smith

  • Hägg, H.E., S.W. Lyon, T. Wällstedt, C.-M. Mörth, B. Claremar, C. Humborg, 2013. Future Nutrient Load Scenarios for the Baltic Sea Due to Climate and Lifestyle Changes. AMBIO DOI 10.1007/s13280-013-0416-4, June 2014, online

  • Edman, M., and A. Omstedt (2013). Modeling the dissolved CO2 system in the redox environment of the Baltic Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr., 58(1), 74–92 DOI: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.1.0074

  • Omstedt, A., Edman, M., Claremar, B., Frodin, P., Gustafsson, E., Humborg, C., Hägg, H., Mörth, M., Rutgersson, A., Schurgers G., Smith, B., Wällstedt, T. and A. Yurova (2012). Future changes in the Baltic Sea acid-base (pH) and oxygen balances. Tellus B (2012), 64, 19586 DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.19586

  • Reckermann, M., Brander, K., MacKenzie, B., and Omstedt, A., (Editors, 2012). Climate impact on the Baltic Sea: From science to policy. Springer Verlag. School of Environmental Research. Avaliable at:
  • Baltic-C Final Report here...

  • Gustafsson E. (2011). Modelled long-term development of hypoxic area and nutrient pools in the Baltic Proper. J. Mar. Syst. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.11.012

  • Reckermann M, Langner J, Omstedt A, von Storch H, Keevallik S, Schneider B, Arheimer B, Meier H.E.M. and Huenicke B (2011). BALTEX – An interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045205 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045205

  • Baltic-C Building predicative capability regarding the Baltic Sea carbon and oxygen system. BONUS Briefing Number 5, 2011.

  • Hansson, D., and E., Gustafsson (2011). Salinity and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea since A.D. 1500. Journal of Geophys. Res., VOL. 116, C03027, doi:10.1029/2010JC006676, 2011

  • Schneider, B., 2011. The CO2 system of the Baltic Sea: Biogeochemical control and impact of anthropogenic CO2. In G. Schernewski et al., Global Change and Baltic Coastal Zones, pp. 33 - 49, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-0400-8_3, Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2011.

  • Schneider, B., 2011. PO4 release at the sediment surface under anoxic conditions: A contribution to the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea? Oceanologia, 53, 415 -429.

  • Baltic-C 2010 Annual Report

  • Baltic-C 2009 Annual Report

  • Omstedt, A., (2011). Guide to process based modelling of lakes and coastal seas. Springer-Praxis books in Geophysical Sciences, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-17728-6. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • Karin Wesslander, Per Hall, Sofia Hjalmarsson, Dominique Lefevre, Anders Omstedt, Anna Rutgersson, Erik Sahlée, Anders Tengberg, 2011. Observed carbon dioxide and oxygen dynamics in a Baltic Sea coastal region. Journal of Marine Systems, 86, pp 1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.01.001

  • Grimvall A. and A. Omstedt (2010). Ocean acidification-data, models and the role of statisticians (In swedish: Havets försurning-data, modeller och statistikerns roll). Qvintensen. Medlemstidning för Svenska Statistikfrämjandet, Nr 4, 2010, sid 14-16. ( The article is in Swedish and will soon be available at the internet address given.


  • Rutgersson A., A. Smedman and E. Sahlee, 2010: Oceanic convective mixing and the impact on air-sea gas transfer velocity. Geophys. Res Lett ., in press

  • Sjöström, I. 2010. Future wind climate in the Baltic Sea region. Master thesis at the Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden. Full thesis here...

  • Schneider B., Nausch G., Pohl C. (2010). Mineralization of organic matter and nitrogen trans-formations in the Gotland Sea deep water. Mar. Chem., 119, 153 -- 161.

  • Beldowski, J., Löffler, A., Schneider, B., Joensuu, L. (2010). Distribution and biogeochemical control of total CO2 and total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. J. Mar. Sys., 81, 252 - 259.

  • Omstedt, A., (2010). Baltic-C: Building predictive capability regarding the Baltic Sea organic/inorganic carbon and oxygen system. BONUS in Brief November 2010, page 7.

  • Rutgersson A. and Smedman, A. (2010) Enhancement of CO2 transfer velocity due to water-side convection. J. Marine Syst., 80, 125-134.

  • Gustafsson, E., 2010. The Baltic Sea marine system – human impact and natural variations. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gothenburg, Earth Sciences Centre, Publication A133.

  • Hansson, D., Eriksson, C., Omstedt, A., and D., Chen (2010). Reconstruction of river runoff to the Baltic Sea. Int. J. Climatol., DOI: 10.1002/joc.2097

  • Wesslander, K., Omstedt, A., and B., Schneider (2010). On the carbon dioxide air-sea flux balance in the Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Research 30, 1511-1521.

  • Omstedt, A., Edman, M., Anderson, L., G., and H., Laudon (2010). Factors influencing the acid-base (pH) balance in the Baltic Sea: A sensitivity analysis. Tellus, 62B, 280-295. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00463.x

  • Baltic-C contributions at the 6th Study Conference on BALTEX, Miedzyzdroje, Wolin, Poland, 14-18 June 2010. Click here for references. Click here for conference proceedings (abstract volume)

  • Hansson, D., 2009. Ocean climate variability over recent centuries explored by modeling the Baltic Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gothenburg, Earth Sciences Centre, Publication A126.

  • Eriksson, C., 2009. Characterizing and reconstructing 500 years of climate in the Baltic Sea basin. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Gothenburg, Earth Sciences Centre, Publication A125.

  • Omstedt, A. (2009). Baltic Sea Marine system: An introduction. Lecture notes for the International Advanced PhD Course on: Climate impact on the Baltic Sea from science to policy. 27 July-5 August, 2009, Nexö, Bornholm, Denmark. Available from the author or here for download.

  • Reckermann, M., MacKenzie, B., Brander, K., A. Omstedt (2009). Summer climate on Bornholm - BALTEX co-organizes interdisciplinary Summer School. BALTEX Newsletter 13, pp. 1-2. International BALTEX Secretariat, GKSS, Geestacht, Germany

  • BALTEX (2009). BALTEX Phase II 2003-2013. Revised Objectives. International BALTEX Secretariat Publication No. 44, pp.92, GKSS Geestacht, Germany

  • Bernd Schneider, Seppo Kaitala, Mika Raateoja, Bernd Sadkowiak (2009) A nitrogen fixation estimate for the Baltic Sea based on continuous pCO2 measurements on a cargo ship and total nitrogen data. Continental Shelf Research 29, 1535–1540.

  • Omstedt, A. , Gustafsson, E. and K., Wesslander, (2009) Modelling the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in the Baltic Sea surface water. Continental Shelf Research 29, 870-885. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2009.01.006. View abstract here...

  • Gustafsson E.O. and A. Omstedt (2009) Sensitivity of Baltic Sea deep water salinity and oxygen concentrations to variations in physical forcing. Boreal Environmental Research 14: 18-30.

  • Rutgersson, A., M. Norman and G. Åström (2009) Atmospheric CO2 variation over the Baltic Sea and the impact on air-sea exchange. Bor. Env Res.,14, 238-249.

  • Hjalmarsson, S., Wesslander, K., Anderson, L.G., Omstedt, A., Perttilä, M., Mintrop, L. (2008) Distribution, long-term development and mass balance calculations of total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. Cont. Shelf Res. 28(4–5), 593–601.

  • Omstedt A. (2008) Baltic-C: Building predictive capability regarding the Baltic Sea organic/inorganic carbon and oxygen system. BALTEX Newsletter 11, pp. 5-7. International BALTEX Secretariat, GKSS, Geestacht, Germany.

  • Omstedt A. (2008) Modelling the Baltic Sea acid-base (pH) balance. BALTEX Newsletter 11, pp. 14-16. International BALTEX Secretariat, GKSS, Geestacht, Germany
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Baltic-C Project Proposal for download here...

Baltic-C Final Report for download here...

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Last update of this page: 18 February 2014